Feb 27 2020

What others are silent. A straight line with Boris Marcinkiewicz from 26.02.2020 | Prospects and complexity of the Northern sea route

At the end of December 2019 truly festive gift Rosato did the government Dmitry Medvedev approved the “development plan for the Northern sea route to 2035.” A year earlier, 27 December 2018, in Russia came into force the law №525-FZ, on the basis of which the State atomic energy Corporation Rosatom has received the authority infrastructure operator of the Northern sea route (NSR).Law 525-law does not so simple when reading, as it contains changes to a number of other Federal laws: the law “About the state Corporation Rosatom,” “About internal sea waters, territorial sea and contiguous zone of the Russian Federation”, “On sea ports of the Russian Federation” and a number of other documents. It’s not surprising, since many of these laws have not changed with 90-ies of the last century, when Russia was in such a state that the development of the SMP and did not have to think, the country has decided quite different tasks and problems. If you do not go into the legal and bureaucratic intricacies and details, the main message of law 525-FZ is quite simple: Russia is returning to the Northern sea route, intends to develop it for the decision of tasks of its development and that the SMP has been developed to a level that will allow you to turn this transport system into a real alternative to southern sea route from Europe to Asia. Perfectly logical, perfectly natural decision that the main work on the development of the SMP it is entrusted to Rosatom. With the time that was put into operation the world’s first atomic icebreaker “Lenin”, the Atomflot became the “uncrowned king” of the Arctic, the absolute master of the SMP. Route, the navigation on which in previous times was a real feat, was subdued unprecedented power — the energy of the peaceful atom.

Development plan SMP is not just about icebreakers

Law 525-FZ, which can be called the “law of the Corporation as the infrastructure of SMP operator” gave our domestic nuclear power Corporation powers of management of the development and operation of the SMP and infrastructure sea ports in its waters. Administered by and the responsibility of Rosatom is now not only maintenance of ships with nuclear-powered ships, but the icebreaking service ports in the Northern sea route, provision of navigational and hydrographic support in the water area, energy supply ports and the development of these ports to a level corresponding to modern requirements. In order for Rosatom could cope with such a wide range of tasks, law 525-FZ, he has the authority of the chief administrator of budgetary funds allocated by the government for the development of the SMP. As in any other case, the budget may not be spent “just because”, without a clear order – because the law 525-FZ stipulates that Rosatom was to develop a specific plan for the development of the NSR, with a list and calendar timeline for the implementation of its separate stages. The plan, of course, had to be agreed with all ministries and departments whose efforts will be required for its implementation, then the plan had to be approved by the government. This is quite logical, because the government develops the state budget, investments in the development of the SMP should not lead to unbalance of the budget, must be provided not only financing, but also the responsibility for the spending budget.

Based on these assumptions Rosatom and started to develop a plan. Since the management of SMP Rosatom for a new challenge to work in this direction the Corporation has created a new structure – management of the SMP, the management of which was entrusted to Vyacheslav Ruksha, the who within the 10 years before that was the head of Atomflot. Other personnel decision impossible to imagine — on our small planet-no other person with such experience, with the knowledge of the Arctic, all the mysteries and secrets of SMP, knowledge about what a Northern delivery, what is its significance for human settlements on the coast of the Arctic ocean.

Because the development plan SMP was unusual, quite similar to numerous development programs in the performance of individual ministries and agencies. Its design takes into account the proposals of Executive authorities, administrations of the Arctic regions, carriers and resource companies operating in the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation, scientists and environmentalists. The environmentalists, in contrast to many other cases, it’s really important nature of the Arctic ocean (SLO) and the Arctic coast a unique and very fragile, not to repeat the mistakes of the Soviet period of Arctic exploration, to correct the accounting for many years.

Three whales and a turtle for the SMP and the Arctic

Before to get acquainted with the details of the development plan SMP, you must take two steps. The plan developed by the Rosatom and approved by the government, cannot become the sole basis for the development of SMP – in the end, it’s just the route for the passage of vessels on the LAYER necessary in order to ensure the implementation of economic projects on the mainland territory of Russia, on the Arctic shelf and Islands. Without everything that happens on land, the NSR has no meaning, it cannot exist as a “thing in itself”. The ships sailing along the NSR, delivering supplies to settlements in the Arctic areas that you do not have any other means of self-sustenance. The ships sailing along the NSR, deliver natural resources produced in the Arctic zone, the end users, using this sea route as the only possible for the implementation of mining projects.

In April 2019, the Russian President instructed the responsible persons to develop not one, but three documents that the Arctic relied on them, as once it is “done” planet, relying, as you know, three elephants. Until the end of last year, the Russian government was obliged to develop “principles of state policy in the Arctic” and “development Strategy of the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation” — only in this case, with such an integrated approach, where the development plan SMP will not be the only of its kind, but part of a more systematic approach, will feel the optimism and the same turtle, on the shell which are elephants. “Turtle” is an economic and social interest of the entire nation, that the interests of the whole country, it is the prospects of sustainable development for the period up to 2035.
Set of drivers for growth in Russia is not an infinite number, the development of the Arctic zone, the development of SMEs is one of them, is extremely important and extremely promising. First of all, such development is essential for us, but for the development of the Arctic, the achievement of year-round navigation along the NSR can and should be the basis of another project – SMP as Central in a geographical sense, the international northeast passage, the shortest route from Europe to Asia and back. It’s not just a lot of work – it is a historical challenge that Russia is getting prepared, the implementation of this project bigger, bigger all mining projects, however large they may be.
International transit trade routes there for centuries, bringing benefits not only to those countries where their endpoints, but to all the countries through which they pass. The rules of the international Maritime trade believe the territorial waters of a state water for 20 nautical miles from the coastline, but the SMP may not be subject to this rule – so ordered nature and climate. The ice LAYER is not allowed to lay a sea route North of our Islands in the Arctic — even if the caravans of ships and “popping” outside our territorial waters, they inevitably have to go back inside to pass the Straits between the two Islands, between Islands and the mainland. This is what determines the uniqueness of SMP, “cancel” it can only global warming, about which so much talk lately. But talk is one thing, but ice waters of the SMP – something else.

Monitoring of the ice LAYER is year-round for nearly hundreds of years – of course, to the extent of the technical possibilities. The solid area of glaciation reached a minimum in 2008, since then it slowly but consistently increases, although the maximum values recorded in 50-80 years of the last century, so far away. The scientific world agree on one thing – if SLO and free from perennial ice fields, it will happen very soon. Russia will be able to achieve the development of SMEs to a level that will allow him to become a part of the northeast passage, we will be able to ensure economic viability of the Northern route – so will give the new generations project, which is a few hundred years will bring significant economic benefits. In short, Russia at a new historical stage of its existence, its development, swings for the project, which will be able to exist for several centuries. That’s about it, if it comes to SMP, you should always remember – for all the growth of oil, gas, LNG production, coal mining, other mineral natural resources is invisibly strategic goal.

However, we are clearly ahead, since the previous edition of the “development Strategy of the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation” and the “foundations of state policy in the Arctic” was designed for the period until 2020, the validity period has expired, and a new day today no. You can blame the Analytical online magazine Geoenergetika in too sympathetic to Rosato, but the fact remains: the atomic Corporation with the job the President has done, the development plan of the SMP is developed and “protected” by the government, while the government itself is the instruction of Vladimir Putin in the specified time failed to do. In February 2020, Yury Trutnev, Deputy Prime Minister of the new (as, indeed, old) of the government of Russia responsible for the development of the Arctic zone (AZ) stated that “the development Strategy of AZ” will be presented at the upcoming June St. Petersburg international economic forum (SPIEF), “principles of state policy” passed by the security Council of Russia and continue the drift towards the State Duma. Nobody is in a hurry, nobody’s punishing anyone, the only “Arctic” document submitted to the lawmakers, the draft law on tax incentives for companies that implement their projects in AZ.

Of course, this is one of the most important laws, but very much entertaining is your style is to put the cart before the horse. Strategy of actions in AL no state policy is not defined, and the law on benefits already left for consideration in the state Duma. Of course, this style was forced to take into account the Rosatom in developing the plan the development of the SMP the implementation of many of its provisions depends on how it will look more basic documents that don’t exist.

Mikhail Mishustin, the new Prime Minister, no doubt, with he inherited from his predecessor, it is not boring, and we can only hope that the “Arctic” shortcomings, the new government will be able to cope in the shortest possible time. That is exclusively for reference, recall that the Deputy Prime Minister, responsible for the development of the Arctic, Yuri Trutnev became February 26, 2018, on the same date, the Minister of development of Far East and the Arctic was Alexander Kozlov. In addition, the government decree of February 10, 2018 No. 203-p was approved the new composition of the State Commission on development of the Arctic in the number of 84 people, headed by Dmitry Rogozin. The Commission is the Minister and the Deputy Prime Minister is, government programs and development strategy of the Arctic – no, guilty of disrupting the timing of their development either. It is said – just a listing of facts, the conclusions one can make on their own.

Development plan SMP developed by Rosatom – present, how he will change after going through all the documents listed above through the State Duma and the Federation Council – will show time. Note that, despite the fact that for the second year as Rosatom is an infrastructure of SMP operator, whose functions are directly performed by the Directorate for SMEs is a separate subsidiary of nuclear Corporation, continues its activities and Federal state budgetary institution “administration of the NSR” under the jurisdiction of the Agency of Maritime and river transport of Ministry of transport of Russia. In the beginning the powers of the Directorate SMP and where to end the powers of the Administration of SMP, open sources of information it is impossible to know.

Look at the Arctic ocean with the “top of the world”

But this “politically state the remark” no reason to go to the study plan for the development of SMP – there is another issue that policy is not exactly connected. This problem is amazing – with all the abundance of information about our Arctic plans and projects so often to you, dear readers, it was possible to see … a map of the Northern sea route in particular, and the map of the Arctic ocean in General? Recall that the Arctic ocean washes the shores of not only Russia but also Norway, Denmark owned Greenland, Iceland, Alaska (USA), Canada that on the territory of SLO is the North pole. And map, giving a proper understanding about the “appearance” of the ocean looks completely different than what we’re used to seeing scientists “look” at the LAYER with the North pole.

The map allows you to zoom in, which is what we suggest to do in order to learn more about what is a historical challenge for Russia – the Northern sea route.

For a start, of course – define some terminology. Federal law No. 155-FZ of 31 July 1988, SMP is defined as “a historically developed national transport communication of Russia, swimming in which is carried out in accordance with the generally recognized principles and norms of international law, international treaties of Russia and the provisions of its national law”. Leave in the direction of disputes with those international partners with a historic, traditional orientation are not satisfied with the SMP, it is a separate big topic for discussion, and, by and large, the traditional orientation is not satisfied, in principle – so that’s their problem. It’s all next time, and yet ahead – along SMP. The concept of waters of the SMP is given in article 51 of the merchant shipping Code of the Russian Federation:

“The aquatic space adjacent to the Northern coast of Russia, territorial sea, contiguous zone and exclusive economic zone of Russia. From the East the waters of the SMP is limited to the line of differentiation of sea spaces of Russia and the United States and the parallel Cape Dezhnev in the Bering Strait, from the West the waters of the SMP is limited by the Meridian of Cape zhelaniya to the Novaya Zemlya archipelago, Eastern coastline of Novaya Zemlya archipelago and the Western borders of the Straits of Matochkin Shar (on the map – between the largest Islands of the archipelago of Novaya Zemlya), the Kara Gate and Yugorsky Shar (the map is not marked, located between Vaigach island and the mainland)”.

Such a broad, sweeping definition of the boundaries of SMP has exactly one reason – the lack of a unified and fixed the alignment. SMP retains the General thrust, but “migrates” in latitude between the continental coast and the North pole depending on the ice situation, often changing the route even during one navigation period. On the map, taking into account the ice conditions of the NSR as follows:

Please note that the hard, geotagged boundaries of SMP in the Federal law No. 155 no, its Western boundary is present only in the merchant shipping Code. Section 51 of the Code of the “cuts” from SMP ports of Arkhangelsk and Murmansk, beyond the waters of the SMP is and deep-sea port of Indiga, together with all existing projects associated with them. In this study, the logical persuasiveness of the current edition of the Code and the Federal law 155-FZ rigid definitions of waters of the SMP is not.

Climate and hydrography

From the point of view of navigation on the NSR is divided into three climatic zones — Atlantic, Siberian and Pacific. The Atlantic zone has a residual effect of the Gulf stream, it includes the Barents sea, the Western part of the Kara sea and part of the pool of SLO to the North of these seas. This is the warmest part of the SMP – in the summer on the coast of the Western part of the Kara sea the temperature rises to 6 degrees Celsius, and in the Barents sea can reach is +7 degrees.

The Barents sea compared to the rest of the water area of the SMP can be considered a resort area and winter because the average temperature this time of year is -20 degrees. On the coast of the Kara sea is slightly cooler in winter the temperature here drops to -28. The downside of such a warm climate, frequent storms and waves up to 7 meters, frequent precipitation and fog in the summer. Siberian climatic area of the NSR, i.e. the Eastern part of the Kara sea, the Laptev sea and the Western part of the East Siberian sea is -34 degrees on average in winter and around +1 degrees in the summer, but the storms and cloudy weather there are recorded less frequently than in neighboring climate zones SMP.

Pacific area, which include the Eastern part of the East Siberian sea and the Chukchi sea, winter is influenced by the Pacific ocean, so here is a little warmer than in the Siberian area, but it is here that the maximum rainfall is in summer, typical of heavy fog due to the significant temperature difference. In the winter time for SMP characteristic snowstorm – up to 14 days during the month. The nature of the navigation depends on the direction, speed and persistence of the winds, which can be pushing, gouging the ice field in the depth LAYER, and the opposite in which grows the concentration and compression of the ice. Wind and depth, amount of ice affect the height of the waves, the most difficult situation in the waters of the SMP is observed in September and October, when the wave height reaches an average of five meters. Since November, problems with the waves disappear, since the whole water area of the NSR, with the exception of the southern part of the Chukchi sea is covered with ice. By the end of October the ice cover usually reaches 25-30 cm, by December it grows to 70-90 cm, by may – to 140-210 cm, and in the Northern parts of the waters – more than three meters.

From the point of view of navigation the most serious constraint on the SMP are of the Novosibirsk Islands. The depth of Sannikov Strait allows passage of vessels with a draft of no more than 11.6 metres is the minimum depth for the SMP. Not only that – the bottom of the Straits constantly perebivaetsya sea currents, so hydrographic surveying there needs to be regular, which currently could not be reached. Approximately the same depth of the sea and in the Dmitry Laptev Strait, which connects the East Siberian sea and the Laptev sea between the mainland coast and the island of Bolshoy Lyakhovsky. In that case, if the ice situation allows ships to pass North of the new Siberian Islands, the limit becomes less stringent – here can take ships with a draught of up to 18 meters. Far left, and the depth of the Kara Strait – here possible the passage of vessels with drafts of up to 21 meters.

We carefully write these meters with only one purpose – to take, and to remind that the depth of the Suez canal is 50 metres away. The Foundationcollection” nautical charts SMP – the one that was made on the materials hydrographic studies prior to 1990, new materials began to arrive only in 2010, when this work was assigned to the “Hydrographic enterprise”. In February, 2019 by order of the government of the FSUE “Hydrographic enterprise” was transferred from the Ministry of transport of Russia to the jurisdiction of Rosatom as an infrastructure operator with SMP. Sounds simple but it is worth remembering that the “Hydrographic enterprise” consists of eight hydrographic bases, nine hydrographic and three support vessels, a comprehensive Arctic hydrographic expedition of the Arctic combined radio navigation unit, Arctic service AIDS to navigation (1043 shoreline and 195 object floating warning sign), information centre for security at sea in the St. Petersburg and coastal NAVTEX station in Tiksi, Arctic pilot services, management of construction and operation of port infrastructure. Work and Rosatom, and “Hydrographic enterprise” ahead of a huge front, since the details of the bottom relief survey in the sea area with an accuracy of less than 500 meters reach 28% in the Kara sea, 35% in the Laptev sea, 15% in the East Siberian sea and only 9% in the Chukchi sea. The idea of the underwater terrain of the water area of the NSR, correctly speaking, is based on a discrete position in the plan definitions of depth and their coordinates. What does it mean? Here the ship on one of the traditional routes where all the rocks and shoals neatly and accurately marked on the map, but the ice field, which makes you deviate from this route – and then there is the risk to meet with serious trouble. It’s not pleasant nor our domestic shipbuilders or, especially, foreign companies that send their ships along the NSR. Automatically “POPs up” another problem is insufficient number of rescue, emergency towing, rescue and fire vehicles, the problem is large and the distance between the reference ports of the SMP.

Tiny icebreakers and huge icebergs

Because of the stable to the unstable ice conditions, a rapid transfer of ice by currents and winds during the passage of the SMP definitely is not the only use for posting icebreakers – here can walk only vessels of an ice class Arc 4.

Ice situation on SMP is quite different: in the summer season of 2017, for example, noted a large concentration of icebergs in the Vilkitsky Strait, which became a serious obstacle even for nuclear-powered icebreakers — even they were forced to find a workaround using Shokalsky Strait (separates the island from the Bolshevik island, October Revolution of archipelago Northern Earth). But there is already a completely unique experience accumulated by the specialists of “Arctic and Antarctic research Institute” and Rosneft. In September 2016, the icebreaker “Kapitan Dranitsyn” with the scientific support of the vessel “Akademik tryoshnikov” for the first time in Russian history, held in the Kara sea experiments in the towing of icebergs. Held from 18 attempts, only two were unsuccessful, and the weight of the largest iceberg was over a million tons.

An iceberg millions of tons – is a block with an area of 150 by 150 meters and a depth of 100 meters and a displacement of “Captain Dranitsyn” — only 15 thousand tons, but when towing this miracle of nature, the ship and its equipment no damage received. The main result of this expedition, which was fully financed Rosneft, our specialists managed to prove that the movement of the icebergs became the human, technical solutions, designed by theorists, has been steadily implemented. According to the head of the expedition “iceberg-summer 2016” Alexey Chernov, in the future it is possible to carry out six to eight pushbacks per day subject to the availability of sufficient number of specialists and equipment. All this sounds absolutely fantastic, but the fact remains – not nuclear, diesel-powered icebreaker with a crew of 60 people, was quite able to perform this work. Because icebergs in the way of cargo ships in the waters of the SMP is still rare, the icebreakers series “Kapitan Sorokin” can become a “duty” on the track of SMB. By the way, this duty will not be considered quite so severe a test for the crew: “Captain Zarnitsyn” is 49 cabins with bathrooms, restaurant, bar, gym, sauna with heated sea water, a library and a small hospital. XXI century in the yard, if someone forgot.

Another difficulty, another challenge of the Arctic, who has previously overcome did not allow the level of technological development is communication. A foreign court that conducted trial flights, state: above 70-75 degrees North latitude is not running the communication satellite operators Inmarsat, Thuraya, GlobalStar. There is another difficulty, to comment on the correct literary language which is quite difficult:

“Office hours SMP: mon-Thu from 9:00 to 18:00, Fri 9:00 to 16:45”. We only recall that the time difference between Murmansk, for example, a Plentywood, is 9 hours. As such intense rhythm of work of the administration of the SMP contributes to increase the transit cargo turnover on the Northern sea route by foreign companies-shippers, we can only guess. There is a suspicion that this style of labor activity for these companies is on a par with icebergs in the Vilkitsky Strait and 7-metre waves in the Chukchi sea during dense fog.

SMP and the price of oil on the world market

In the “development Plan SMP”, was developed by Rosatom, the basis is not the definition of waters of the SMP from the code of Maritime trade, and a more General definition from the Federal law 155-FZ, that is, the Northern sea route as “historical national transport communications of Russia”, and we very much hope that the Code will be changed in the near future. Even in a condensed, concise list of problems and challenges facing the Directorate SMP, as you can see, took several pages. But there is a shorter method of proof that is necessary. That the volume of cargo transportation along the NSR is already 4-5 times higher than the record figures of the Soviet period of our history, mentioned often – and rightly so, we have every right to be proud of this significant achievement. Post-Soviet Russia, broke up with the 14 republics, which were part of the Soviet Union, managed to outperform what was achieved a huge country – it is clear, in millions of tons expressed proof that all liberal and pseudaletia howls that “all is lost, destroyed industry and science” with reality have little in common. However, the achievements are only attainable when we see not only his own victory, but also aware of the problem, to deal with that yet.

Here are data on the volumes of transit freight turnover in recent years. Maximum results in an invisible battle with the Suez canal was achieved in 2013, when SMP was conducted 1.3 million tons of transit cargo. And immediately after that everything changed, and very dramatically. 2014 – 300 thousand tons of transit cargo, 2015, 39.6 thousand tons, in 2016 – 194 thousand tons, in 2017 – 194 thousand tons, 2018 – 491 ton. The end of 2019 not yet fully announced, there’s only the data as of October 1 – by this time the transit through the NSR passed 441,8 thousand tons of cargo. The cause is not a result of Western sanctions against Russia, as someone certainly had time to think. We used to see on the pages of news outlets brief: “the length of the SMP is much shorter than the path along the southern route”, but sea cargo is delivered to a specific shipping company that deal with specific data. Let us and we will do the same.

The distance between the largest sea ports in Europe and Asia in nautical miles and the interest advantage of the route’s North-East passage:

Rotterdam ⇒ Yokohama – 7’381 mile on MRAs, 11’180 miles through the Suez canal, winning 34% of
Rotterdam ⇒ Shanghai – 8’417 miles on a hovercraft, 10’525 miles through the Suez canal win 20%
Remember that the length of the runs of SMP ranges from 2’700 miles for the near-pole up to 3’500 miles to coastal paths, that is, when unfavorable ice conditions, which in advance one can not predict, the increase in distance may be less significant. Remember that 2014 is not only the date of the beginning of anti-Russian sanctions, but the time a very dramatic fall in oil prices. Added to this reasoning all of the above risks and problems – and get the answer to the question why foreign companies-shipowners do not want to line up for the wiring of ships along the NSR. And you will see this place only when Russia will be able to eliminate or minimize all obstacles, which are described in this article.

And on budgets

Russia needs not just year-round navigation along the NSR due to the construction of new and modern nuclear icebreakers, although they will be the basis for the solution of all other problems. You need to remember that each stage the work ahead requires serious funding. Suffice it to recall that the construction of nuclear-powered icebreakers LK-series-60 costs about 37 billion rubles, and preliminary estimates for the construction of icebreaker “Leader” or the series of LK-120 is currently being evaluated in more than 100 billion rubles, and to build a “Leader” we are only capable of far Eastern shipbuilding complex “Zvezda” is the only shipyard that will overcome such a project, and the “Star” is still under construction. To recoup such investments can only icebreaking cargo ships, new and new volumes of these goods, and this turnover must provide the ability to perform the entire job, the upcoming “Hydrographic enterprise”, which should technologically upgrade, buy a new specialized courts. And there are no other sources of funding besides the state budget and payment for icebreaking support to a diverse fleet of damaged ships to space were deployed additional constellation of satellites that will provide communications and will improve the quality of hydrographic and meteorological observations for the area of the SMP. In order for SMP switched to year-round navigation in the ports of shipment should also go year-round, and this inevitably leads to the need for constant replenishment of the fleet another structure of Rosatom, with the telling title “the fleet” — diesel-electric icebreakers, which will serve the Harbor.

Most often in the media remember the reference ports of the SMP – uarantee, the Sabetta, Dixon, Dudinka, Igarka, Khatanga, Tiksi, Provideniya, Pevek, Egvekinot, occasionally recall such ports as Naryan-Mar, Amderma, Green Cape, Beringovsky, Anadyr, Chersky, gerbil, Keperveem. But the total number of harbours and marinas in the Russian Arctic is more than 70. They were built for the implementation of the Northern delivery, they were in active use when the maximum was economic activity in the Nenets AO, Yakutia, Chukotka, the Magadan region, but now many of them barely breathing. Increasing freight turnover in ports of SMP support, we will be able to solve “big” problems, and the disappearance of the problem will lead to the fact that it would be cheaper to do and the delivery less difficult to navigate at the abandoned ports, and this, in turn, can become the basis for the restoration of old projects and implementation of new in the Arctic. Icebreakers and reference ports for the development of the NSR – the basis of all development plan of the SMP and its economic base. Consequently, these reference ports should be more. If we follow the definition of waters of the SMP is given in the Code of Maritime Commerce, support ports that are able to significantly increase the turnover, can be counted on the fingers of one hand – Varandey Sabetta Yes, but the Murmansk, Arkhangelsk, belongs to the scheme of development of transport infrastructure of Russia Indiga – be beyond. There is a logic in this completely artificial a voluntary restriction, given the fact that, for example, in Murmansk and the construction of new coal terminals, and the largest importers of this energy resource are China, Japan and India, who are well aware of what the diversification of suppliers? A rhetorical question the answer to which is given in the “development Plan SMP”, developed by Rosatom and approved by the Russian government.

Of course, Analytical online magazine Geoenergetika is not intended that this article any fully describes all the difficulties created by nature, geography and Geology, hundreds of years does not allow full exploration of the North sea route. But first acquaintance, it seems to us, was held, but because the story of what Rosatom has made in the “development Plan SMP”, what part of this plan in what order is to be realized that Rosatom undertakes to do yourself, and what is beyond its powers and possibilities, now it will be much more appropriate.

Boris Martsinkevich

News site E-News.su | E-News.pro. Using the materials, put the link back.

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