The most severe confrontation between the Christian States of Europe with the Barbary pirates, which was discussed in previous articles, continued throughout the seventeenth century. At this time the corsairs of the Maghreb already were active in the Atlantic ocean, making raids to the coasts of Britain, Ireland, Iceland, Canary Islands and Madeira. In the article “European corsairs of the Islamic Maghreb” we talked about the “exploits” coming out for the Gibraltar of Simon de Danser and Peter Easton, the expeditions of Murat-Reis. Junior to the shores of Iceland, Ireland and England. But there were others. In 1645 a renegade from Cornwall visited even in his hometown – only to capture several hundred prisoners, including 200 women. Pirates of the Fat is captured and floating to the shores of America in the ships of European settlers. So, in 1636, their prey was a ship, “little David”, which went to Virginia 50 men and 7 women. And on October 16 1670 40 men and 4 women were captured by the French ship.
The Ottoman Empire weakened in the eyes, and the rulers of the Maghreb States all pay less attention to instructions from Constantinople. Algeria, Tunisia, Tripoli from the Turkish provinces have become semi-independent pirate state, which claimed to establish their own rules of war on the Mediterranean sea.
France and the pirate States of the Maghreb
At this time, the deteriorated relations of the pirate States of the Maghreb with France, which until then was more friendly: despite some excesses and constant friction, from 1561 on the border of Algeria and Tunisia was a thriving French trading post, in which it is legally committed transaction for buying stolen goods. However, times have changed, and the French were forced to seek an Alliance with their traditional enemies-the Spaniards. In 1609, the Franco-Spanish squadron struck at Goleta, which destroyed much of the Tunisian ships. The problem of Barbary piracy is not decided, and on 19 September 1628 the French signed with Algeria a peace Treaty, according to which undertook to pay an annual tribute in the amount of 16 thousand livres. French factory resumed its activities on the North African coast, and corsairs of the Maghreb, including Algiers, continued to attack French ships.
Not relying on their own government, one of the “noble” French families started their own war against the pirates. Kitted out with private funds ship in 1635, captured two Algerian vessels, but the luck ended: in a battle against two pirate ships, to which for help came five more, the French were defeated, captured and sold into slavery. Home of the surviving sailors on that ship came back only after 7 years.Large-scale military operations against the corsairs of the Maghreb, France began during the reign of Louis XIV, who organized 9 expeditions against Algeria. During the first of them, in 1681, the squadron of the Marquis de Corre attacked a pirate base on the island of Tripoli Scio: the fortress walls were destroyed by bombing in the Harbor managed to burn 14 pirate ships.
In 1682, Algerian corsairs seized a French military ship, whose crew was sold into slavery. Admiral Abraham Dukong, in response, attacked Algeria. During the shelling, he used a new explosive shells, which caused huge damage to the city, however, forcing the fortress to capitulate could not. His actions in 1683-1684, he was more successful: Algeria was now fired mortars specially designed “bomber of galioty”.
Dey Baba Hassan had wavered, began talks with Ducanes and even released part who was a prisoner of the French (142).
But the morale of the defenders was very high, to surrender they did not intend. The behavior of Hassan caused an outcry in Algeria, and cowardly dey was overthrown. Admiral Ali Mizomoto to replace him on the post of the ruler of Algeria, said Duany, which in the case of continued shelling, he will have to charge the fortress guns remaining at its disposal by the French, and fulfilled his promise: the role of the “core” had to play not only the prisoners, but also to the Consul. Bitterness peaked almost destroyed by Ducanam the city held until then, until the French ships did not spend all the shells.
25 Oct 1683 of Ducon was forced to withdraw his ships to Toulon. To force Algeria to the world has been another Admiral de turvill, who led a French squadron to Algeria in April 1684. Under the mediation of the Ambassador of the Ottoman Porte was concluded an agreement under which Algerians have liberated all the Christians and paid a French subject for compensation for their lost property.
In 1683 and in 1685 he similarly, the French bombarded the Harbor of Tripoli, and also without much success.
A peace agreement with Algeria was already broken in 1686 when it was resumed attacks on French ships, and the new Consul arrested and thrown in jail. Already familiar to us of Tourville in 1687 he took his ships to the bombing of Tripoli and defeated the Algerian fleet in a sea battle.
And at the storming of Algiers in 1688, the French fleet led Admiral d Isgre. Here repeat the events of 5 years ago: squadron d ESHRE Algeria was subjected to a devastating bombing, during one of which he was wounded even Metamore Ali, Algerians were loading their guns the French – as cores were used Consul, two priests, seven captains and 30 sailors. D ESHRE responded with a penalty 17 corsairs, bodies which he sent on rafts to the city’s harbour. To capture Algeria or force him to surrender failed this time.
Great value these victories, nevertheless, were not. And the defeat of the French fleet (commanded of Tourville) in a sea battle against the English at La Hogue in 1692 led to a new round of confrontation Barbary pirates and France on the Mediterranean sea.
The actions of the English and Dutch squadrons
In 1620 his military squadron in the Mediterranean sent England, Spain and Holland: no significant collisions with ships of the Barbary pirates this year or not. The British mainly patrolled the caravan routes. The bombardment of Algiers, undertaken by the Spaniards, the damage of the fortress have not done. Attack of English fire-ships, in may 1621, proved unsuccessful because of the rain, which helped the Algerians to put out, fire was the court.
More effective was the action of the Dutch Admiral Lambert, the squadron which came to the Mediterranean sea in 1624. Each time capturing a pirate ship, his ships approached Algeria or Tunisia and the prisoners were hung aloft in sight of the city. These psychological attacks, which lasted until 1626, forced Algeria and Tunisia to release the Dutch prisoners, and to admit merchant ships of this country neutral.
In 1637, the English squadron blockaded the port of Salé in Morocco, was destroyed 12 pirate ships and agreed to release 348 Christian slaves.
In 1655, the British managed to burn 9 pirate ships in the Tunisian harbour of Porto Farina, but also in Tunisia, and in Algeria, the British prisoners had to buy, spending 2700 pounds.
In 1663, a momentous event occurred: the government of the Ottoman Empire allowed the British to carry out punitive operations against the Algerian pirates, thus actually recognizing their control of Algeria of government of the Sultan. And in 1670 the allied Anglo-Dutch squadron under the command of the Duke of York (future king James II) in the battle of Cape Sparel (Spartel – about 10 km from Tangier) destroyed seven large pirate ships, four of which were 44-gun.
The following year, a new squadron of the British burned seven ships, one of which was the commander of the Algerian Navy. The corsairs of that state at the time weakened the onslaught, but in the Mediterranean sea has continued to host the pirates of Tunis and Tripoli. In 1675, a squadron of Admiral Narborough bombarded Tripoli and burned four ships, forcing the Pasha of this city to agree to pay to the English merchants of compensation in the amount of 18 thousand pounds. But by this time regained its activity Algerians, who in the years 1677-1680 153 captured British merchant ships. The attacks were made until 1695, when the squadron commander beech ravaged the coast of Algeria, destroying 5 vehicles and forcing local Pasha to the conclusion of the next agreement.
Barbary pirates in the eighteenth century
At the turn of XVII-XVIII centuries strained relations between the Islamic States of the Maghreb. This was the cause of several wars. In 1705 dey of Algiers, Hadji Mustafa invaded Tunisia and defeated the army of the local Bey Ibrahim, but to take the city could not (Tunisia was subject to the Algiers in 1755). And in 1708 the Algerians fought off the Spaniards of Oran.
In 1710 in Algeria were killed three thousand Turks, in 1711, the last Ottoman Governor was sent to Constantinople – Algeria became an independent state, managed deame, which was chosen by the Janissaries.
Meanwhile, the qualitative composition of war fleets of the European States has been steadily changing. In place of the galleys came in big sailing ships, which have not been used for the work of the rowers. Before everyone stopped using the galleys in Spain in the 20-ies of the XVIII century. In France, the last galley was decommissioned in 1748. Sailing and rowing boats still used the Islamic States of the Maghreb and Venice, which until the end of the XVIII century, kept a squadron of galleys on the island of Corfu.
And in Islamic countries “the Barbarous coast” at this time, it was possible to observe some degradation of the combat fleet. In Algeria, for example, reduced the number of large sailing ships, which was quite a lot in the XVII century. Now the basis of the combat fleet were small sailing and rowing kicks, Cebeci and galioty perfectly adapted to the actions in coastal waters, but malopodhodyaschimi for swimming in the ocean.
So, the Navy of Algeria in 1676 consisted of two 50-gun ships, five 40-gun, one 38-gun, two 36-gun, three 34-cannon, three 30-gun, one 24-gun and a large number of smaller vessels, which had adopted 10 to 20 guns. But in 1737 the largest warships of Algeria had 16 and 18 guns. On kicks was from eight to ten cannons, on the Shebek – 4-6, galioty were carrying from one to six guns. In 1790, the largest ship of Algeria had 26 guns.
The fact that after the takeover of Anglo-Dutch squadron of Gibraltar in 1704, the corsairs of Algeria and Tunisia could no longer freely go out into the Atlantic, and focused on the plunder merchant ships in the Mediterranean sea. And, in order to plunder the merchant ships here, large warships were not needed. From the European military squadrons corsairs took refuge in shallow waters or in their well-fortified ports, which for a long time without success. Yielding to European fleets in size, tonnage and armament of ships, pirates of the Maghreb continue almost with impunity around the Mediterranean, Christian States of Europe demonstrated impotence in dealing with them.
In the vastness of the Atlantic ocean while still trying to earn one of the corsairs of Morocco, based in sale: this city had a squadron, which was from 6 to 8 frigates and 18 galleys.
Pirates of Salé fair pay “taxes” to the Moroccan sultans, and they did not particularly interested in the origin flowing into their Treasury funds. But the key port on the Moroccan coast – Ceuta, was in the hands of the Europeans (initially it was owned by Portugal, then Spain), so that already Sality was not feeling very confident.
The main opponents Barbary pirates at that time were Spain, the Kingdom of the two Sicilies, Venice and the order of Malta.
In 1775 the Spanish sent against Algeria army of 22 thousand soldiers, but to capture the fortress failed. In 1783, their fleet shelled Algiers, but a lot of damage that has already been independent from the Ottoman Empire, the citadel of pirates to strike failed.
In 1784 has not achieved much success speaking against Algeria, the allied squadron, consisting of Spanish, Portuguese, Neapolitan and Maltese ships.
An unexpected battle with the Russian sailors from the pirates of the Maghreb
In 1787 he began another Russian-Turkish war (7th in a row, if you count with the Astrakhan campaign of Kasim Pasha). By this time the Russian troops and the Russian Navy had already been won, forever entered the history of martial arts.
A. V. Suvorov defeated the Turks at Kinburn spit, in Alliance with the Austrians won at Focsani and Rymnik, took Ismail. In 1788, fell Hawtin and Ochakov in 1789 – Bender. In 1790 was defeated by Turkish troops at Anapa and crushed the revolt of the mountaineers.
The Black sea Russian fleet won Fidonisi (snake island), in the Kerch Strait, near the island of Tendra.
In August 1790, “draw” over the last Russo-Swedish war, and Russia was able to concentrate all efforts on the struggle against the Ottomans. But, in the same year died the ally of Russia, the Austrian Emperor Joseph II, and Prince of Coburg was defeated under Gurga. The new Emperor signed a separate peace. Ristovski peace Treaty, which was signed in August 1791, proved to be very beneficial for Turkey: Austria has renounced all the conquests of this war. Sultan Selim III had hoped that at least one resounding victory of Turkish troops over the Russians will change the balance of forces and the Ottoman Empire will be able to adequately get out of the war, concluding a peace with honor.
Hopes this Sultan connected with the actions of its fleet, to reinforce who was Algerian and Tunisian ships. The Ottoman fleet was commanded by kapudan Pasha Giritli Hussein Maghribi is a famous pirate Admiral Seydi Ali (Sayid-Ali Seyit-Ali), who had combat experience with the European squadron and bore the nickname “scourge of the seas” and “the lion of the Crescent moon”. Overall command was exercised by Hussein, Seydi Ali was the senior Vice-Admiral (“main Chuck”).
In may 1790, Seydi Ali defeated the Greek privateer squadron, which in 1788 was intercepted by Turkish ships in the Mediterranean sea, making it difficult to supply and of the army, and Constantinople.
Russian and Greek privateer, the Corsair Lambro of Cecioni
In Russia this person is known under the name of Lambro, Kachiani, in Greece it is called by Lambros Laconism. He was a native of the town of Livadia, located in the region of Boeotia (Central Greece).
At the age of 17 he with his brother and the “other fellow” enlisted as a volunteer in the Mediterranean squadron of Admiral G. Spiridov. Then he served in the Jaeger corps, and in 1785 received a knighthood. With the outbreak of the Russo-Turkish war, fought initially on the Black sea and in the night from 10 to 11 October 1787 the Gadzhibey (Odessa) his detachment, placed on boats, captured a Turkish ship, named in honor of the nobleman who sympathized with the Greek “Prince Potemkin-Tavricheskiy”.
In February, 1788, with letter of marque of a certificate issued Potemkin made it to the Austrian port of Trieste, where he fitted out the first pirate ship. He and his squadron were already 10 privateer ships, he said: “throughout Turkey is booming, the Archipelago is filled with Russian courts, but actually there are no more pirates than myself and 10 of my ships”.
For the protection of trade routes, the Turks had to send in the Archipelago 23 ship, but fortune smiled on the Algerian Admiral seit-Ali, who managed to sink 6 ships Cecioni, including the flagship – 28-cannon “Minerva of the North.”
Completely stop privateering actions Cicione the Turks failed – albeit on a smaller scale, it still continued to bother them on the trade routes.
After the peace of Jassy in 1791, the adventurer ignored the order to disarm his trial, declared himself king of Sparta and engaged in outright piracy, even the 2 captured French merchant ship. In June 1792 his squadron was defeated, he himself, in 1794, he arrived in Russia. Despite some “dark spots” in his biography, Cecioni enjoyed the patronage of Catherine II, which was presented at the ball on 20 September 1795. Greek Corsair has made the Empress the impression that he was allowed to wear a FEZ embroidered with a silver image of female hands and the words “Under the hand of the Empress.”
In 1796 the Empress 5 times invited former Greek Corsair (now Russian Colonel) to your table, which caused confusion and the envy of more senior and titled persons. Special arrangement Catherine began to experience him after he was able to cure some sort of rash on legs baths of sea water, which she recommended Cecioni. The detractors of Greek (in particular, the court doctor Robertson) argued that these bath contributed to an apoplectic attack, caused the death of the Empress. However, these accusations were unsubstantiated, and no repressive measures with the accession of Paul I against Kachiani followed.
Now back to the Algerian Seydi Ali, who promised the Sultan that will deliver to him the Russian Admiral Ushakov in Istanbul in a cage or with a noose around his neck.
Battle of Cape Kaliakra
In the Ottoman Navy at that time, there were 19 ships of the line, 17 frigates and 43 of the small vessel. The appeal of Selim III to help the North African corsairs, most courts which, as we remember, was small and slabovidimym, speaks volumes: and on high the “bets” made on the new naval battle, and the fear and uncertainty of the Sultan in the outcome.
Turkish fleet went to sea in early may, 1791. Camping went 20 battleships, 25 frigates, six Shebek, scoring five vessels, ten of kirlangic and 15 transport ships. The purpose of his motion was Anapa: the Ottoman squadron had to deliver to the Fort’s supplies and reinforcements, and to provide garrison support.
June 10, after receiving information about the fact that the Dniester Estuary detected a large enemy fleet to meet him came the squadron of rear-Admiral F. Ushakov. In his possession were 16 ships of the line, two frigates, three of the top scoring vehicle, nine cruiser, 13 brigantines and three fire.
According to Russian historical sources, the Turkish fleet was discovered on June 11 at the southern coast of Crimea (Cape Aya), and for 4 days were pursued by the squadron of Ushakov. Turkish historians claim that during those days the squadron was inactive due to calm. The battle did not take place because, according to Ushakov, his squadron because of different breakdowns behind 6 ships of the line. On 16 June, the Russian squadron returned to Sevastopol, where the damaged vessels were repaired more than a month.
Back to sea Ushakov was able to get only 29 of July. This time he had 16 ships of the line, two bomb-vessel, two frigates, one dig, one repition the ship and 17 cruising vessels. Flagship flag, he kept on the 84-gun battleship “Christmas” – the most powerful in the squadron. This ship was built at the Kherson shipyard, the solemn ceremony of its launching in 1787 was attended by Catherine II and Austrian Emperor Joseph II, after whom it got its first name. He would be renamed by the initiative of Ushakov – March 15, 1790. At the same time received the motto “God With us, God is with us! Understand, the mind usually describe, and pokoritsya, God is with us!” (the words of the Nativity Great Compline).
The Turkish fleet was discovered on July 31 at Cape Kaliakra.
Kapudan Pasha Hussein was on the battleship “Bahr and Zafer” (the number of artillery guns of this ship, according to various estimates, ranged from 72 to 82). “Leo Crescent” Sadie-Ali had his flag on the 74-gun “Mukaddime and Nusrat”. “Cartridge Tunes” (Tunisian Vice-Admiral) went on 48-gun linear ship at the disposal of “riale Djezair” (Algiers rear-Admiral) was a 60-gun ship, “Chuck Djezair” (Algerian Vice-Admiral) led privatise the ship, number of guns unknown.
Turkish squadron consisted of the larger ships, but it was heterogeneous and consisted of courts of different rank, pirate crews, to put it mildly, did not differ discipline. In addition, because of the large losses incurred in the years 1780-1790, and desertions, crews of many Ottoman ships were understaffed (even the crew of the flagship of Hussein).
At the time of the meeting, the wind direction was North. The Turkish fleet was at the Cape Kaliakra in three columns extending from South-West to North-East. Ushakov’s fleet, also in three columns, moved West.
Instead of having to build their ships in a line, Ushakov sent them between the coast (where there was a Turkish battery) and the courts of the enemy – was 14 hours and 45 minutes. This maneuver, where the ships near to the shore of the columns were covered from the fire of the shore batteries of the court the other two, and the Russian squadron – were in the windward position, for the Turks was a complete surprise: they wanted to build their ships in line, but they do it was only about 16.30. Then turned into a line and Russian ships.
Ushakov on the “Nativity” attacked Seydi Ali, the ship which he considered “capulana” (flagship): the ship was broken bowsprit and rudder, downed Fort-the topmast and main yard,.Seydi Ali was injured (claim that chips from the Fort of steggy wounded him in the chin), but, to cover the two frigates, “Mukaddime and Nusret” came from the battle. His retreat with the other crews of the Turkish ships was perceived as a signal to escape, and at 20.00 the Ottoman fleet fled, at 20.30 the battle ceased.
Turkish historians are guilty in defeat declare it Seydi Ali: that he is, contrary to the orders of Hussein, withdrew from the Algerian and Tunisian courts to the South, which the Ottoman fleet was divided into two parts. And then also willfully attacked the Russian vanguard and was surrounded. Some Turkish vessels rushed to the aid of defeated allies, and finally broke rank. Then 8 Turkish ships followed in running to Constantinople, the “Lion of the Crescent moon”, depriving the kapudan Pasha Hussein the opportunity to regroup our forces and continue the battle the next day.
As a result, lost 28 ships of the Ottoman fleet was scattered on the Anatolian and Rumelian coast. Ten ships (including 5 of the linear) came to Constantinople, where “Mukaddime and Nusret”, the flagship of Seydi Ali, sunk in the eyes of the shocked residents of the city. View the rest was pathetic and terrible at the same time.
Selim III the defeat of the told words:
The Sultan replied:
Some argue that in the cage, prepared for Ushakov, was planted the unfortunate Algerian Admiral Seydi Ali. And kapudan Pasha Hussein long did not dare to face the angry Sultan.
Russian squadron in the battle did not lose a single ship. Was small and casualties: 17 people killed and 27 wounded at the time, as soon as the ship Seydi Ali killed 450 people.
G. Potemkin, having received news of the victory near Kaliakra, ripped almost completed peace Treaty, hoping to sign a new, more profitable.
In the final article of this series, you will learn about the Barbary wars, the United States and the final defeat of the pirate States of the Maghreb.
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